In many scientific fields, but certainly in other types of writing as well, the conclusion indicates relevant questions for further study or exploration. While this might seem to contradict the idea of closure, in fact, the closure on the article or essay usually occurs just before this suggestion, and this suggestion of further research areas serves to provide a large sense of completeness. In many topics of public concern, this "further research" suggestion takes a different form - a call for further awareness of an issue or problem.
The conclusion should match the introduction in terms of the ideas presented
and the argument put forward. Sometimes you will find that the process
of writing has changed what you have argued and so it will be necessary
to go back and reword the introduction. Finally, the conclusion is not
the place in your essay to introduce new information or new ideas: these
should be in the body of your essay.
Example of an essay conclusion 1
Essay Question: : Italy on the eve of 1860 has often been described
as an unlikely nation. Why?
Before 1860, only a tiny minority of the population believed that
Italy could ever become a unified nation under one Italian ruler.
Yet, despite this belief and the many obstacles blocking the path
to unification such as differences and suspicion between the many
regions of the peninsula, the lack of planning and common goals that
saw many uprisings fail and the divergent views and politics amongst
the men who fought for unity, the Piedmont region emerged "...as the
nucleus around which the rest of Italy could gather" (Mack Smith,
1959: 17). On March 17, 1861, the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed.
Italy was no longer a geographical expression, it was a nation.
reference to essay question
reiteration of thesis point
overview of main arguments explaining the obstacles to Italy's unification
concluding comment and reference to essay question 1 This essay has been adapted from material developed by R. Woodward-Kron, E. Thomson & J. Meek (2000) Academic Writing: a language based guide (CD-ROM), University of Wollongong
© Copyright 2000
Comments and questions should
be directed to [email protected]
The problem of teen gang violence can be eliminated. It will, however, take time, money, and a combined effort on the part of many people. Organized, free, after-school programs such as: sports teams and games; art, music, and drama activities; internships in local area businesses and professional organizations; and interesting volunteer activities in the community would help engage teens in worthwhile pursuits outside of school hours. More job opportunities for teens, especially those funded by state and local programs, would offer income for teens as well as productive work for the community. Outreach to families through schools, community organizations, and places of worship would help promote inter-generational activities that could improve family closeness, helping teens to work on their problems at the family level, instead of taking them to the streets. If these programs can be implemented, we will surely see a decrease in teen gang activity and safer streets and neighborhoods for us all.