The Greek prefix “epi” means “on top of” or “over”, so the term “Epigenetics” literally describes regulation at a level above, or in addition to, those of genetic mechanisms. Common types of epigenetic regulation are DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and regulation by small and large non-coding RNAs. The field of epigenetics was given its name and a vague definition only ~50 years ago, but is now a dynamic and rapidly expanding discipline, challenging and revising traditional paradigms of inheritance.
Sampling locations were pre-identified to include areas with a high density of cash-based assistance, as visible from our previous survey and existing documentation from aid agencies. In Kabul, this included Botkhak and other areas where IDPs and returnees have settled. In Nangahar, data was collected in Shikhi Misri, Mahajirino Camp (IDPs), Siasang, Samarkhil in Behsoud, Shaheedano Meena in Rodat and Kabul Camp in Rodat, as well as around a UNHCR encashment center in Torkham. In Helmand, data collection focused on IDP communities in Lashkargah.