The authors do a good job noting that said events can occur at an individual level, but the crucial ones affect broad consumer demographics. Granted, most of these disruptions are bound to alienate a number of customers. However, they may also strengthen loyalty amongst smaller communities. This point relates to the previously mentioned idea that customer satisfaction is not the sole motivator of brand loyalty. In fact, brand loyalty is often a means to lower or alleviate perceived risk, and/or to establish a social identity within a consumer culture. The authors make the very same claim, saying:
The number of homeless families with children has increased significantly over the past decade or so. They are among the fastest growing segments of the homeless population. Together they are approximately 40% of all people who are homeless. Sadly, rural areas contain the largest group of homeless families, single mothers, and children. Emotions hit home when children and babies can be pictured living in an alley with only dreams of warmth, while normal middle class citizens stroll by wearing coats and mittens without even appreciating them.