Shafik has held academic appointments at the Wharton Business School of the University of Pennsylvania and the Economics Department at Georgetown University . She has authored, edited, and co-authored a number of books, including Prospects for the Middle East and North African Economies: from Boom to Bust and Back? and Challenges Facing Middle Eastern and North African Countries: Alternative Futures, and Reviving Private Investment in Developing Countries . She has written articles for a number of publications, including Oxford Economic Papers , Colombia Journal of World Business , The Middle East Journal , Journal of African Finance and Economic Development , World Development , and the Journal of Development Economics . She contributes to a blog with other heads of development agencies at .