At the same time, other insurrections arose in the Papal Legations of Bologna , Forlì , Ravenna , Imola , Ferrara , Pesaro and Urbino . These successful revolutions, which adopted the tricolore in favour of the Papal flag, quickly spread to cover all the Papal Legations, and their newly installed local governments proclaimed the creation of a united Italian nation. The revolts in Modena and the Papal Legations inspired similar activity in the Duchy of Parma , where the tricolore flag was adopted. The Parmese duchess Marie Louise left the city during the political upheaval.
The idea of a united Italy began to form with the fall of Napoleon in 1814. At that time, the Italian peninsula comprised several independent city-states. The movement to unite Italy began underground and spread throughout the early part of the 19th century. The movement erupted in a series of revolts in 1848. Although those initial revolts were unsuccessful, they laid the foundations for the unification of Italy. The turning point came when the prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, the most affluent of the city-states, formed an alliance with France. France entered into war with the Austrian empire, which had been a key player in suppressing the movement for the unification of Italy, and won. As a result, lands belonging to the Austrian empire were granted to Piedmont-Sardinia. After that point, the rest of the city-states in the northern Italian peninsula voted to become part of Piedmont-Sardinia. Once it was united, the northern peninsula assembled an army and sent it into the southern part of the peninsula to pressure those city-states to join the united northern states. By 1861, a parliament had been formed, but it did not include Rome and Venice. Those two holdouts were taken by the Italian army in 1870, and the Italian peninsula became a unified nation.